Ravangaon and Shirsuphal villages are located in the Daund and Baramati talukas respectively of Pune district of Maharashtra. Located in the semi-arid parts of the Deccan plateau with grassland vegetation type, the villages have protected the rhesus macaque for the last 400 years. Although protection is only extended to the macaques, a number of other mammal species are found in the area, such as the chinkara, the blackbuck and the Indian wolf. The villages are located in close proximity to the Rehekuri sanctuary. The total population of the villages is about 15000 and that of the livestock in the villages about 20000. The major source of income is agriculture, with crops like sugarcane, onion and wheat grown on a large scale.