Kalikasole Village

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 Location  Ecosystem Type    Conservation Type    Area(hectare)  Legal status 
 Mayurbhanj, Odisha  Forest  Ecosystem Conservation  500  Joint Forest Management

Case Study (2009)


Sunaposi forest is a patch of forest located in the Chandua block of Mayurbhanj District in Orissa. This area comes under the Deuli Forest Range of Baripada Forest Division and has 11 villages situated surrounding it. This 5-sq km spread of forest is the main source of subsistence use and livelihood support of these villages and is legally classified as reserved forest. The ownership of this forest lies with Orissa Forest Department. Kalikasole village, inhabited mainly by the Santhal tribe, is the first village around this patch of forest where the conservation initiative began. The village is located 24 km from of Baripada, the Mayurbhanj district headquarters, and 7 km from the block headquarters, Chandua.

In 1979, there was a severe cyclone in Orissa. Powerful wind uprooted thousands of trees in the Sunaposi Reserved Forest. The forest department gathered these trees and sold them in the market. Taking the cue, the villagers illegally started cutting down living trees and soon the entire forest was reduced to nothing.

During that time, NTFP still did not have a big market. Collection of sal seeds was not introduced yet. The local tribals did collect some NTFP for self-consumption and sale in the local market. Income from this sale sustained them for about 3-4 months a year. In the lean period, the forest was an important source of food for them. These people were therefore severely hit by deforestation in the area.

Two villagers, Makardhaj Marndi and Ranjan Murmu, took the lead for conservation of one portion of Sunaposi forest adjacent to Kalikasole village. Six persons were selected to patrol the forest on a rotation basis.

The villagers soon realised the difficulties of protecting one patch of the forest without the cooperation of the neighbouring villages. They then initiated discussions with the neighbouring villages. Over a period of time five other villages started conservation activities.

Subsequently, in 1983, joint forest management (JFM) was introduced in these villages and a forest protection committee was officially constituted with the help of forest department for the management and protection of the forest. The committee in its general body meeting decides all rules and regulations, which every member is bound to follow.

The main community involved in protection are the Santhals, although the benefits are now being shared by all. The forest department largely plays a supportive role.

The forest has regenerated considerably since the protection started. The villagers now derive substantial income from the forest. Besides meeting livelihood needs, they also extract food items and medicinal plants from the forest.

Although decisions relating to the daily management of the forest lie with the committee members, they are not consulted on policy-related matters, which are taken by the state government. The communities do not get the opportunity to express their views on policy matters, and are not even informed about the decisions taken unless they find out on their own or through the NGOs working in the area.

Differences between the conserving communities and the user communities seem to be gradually increasing, as is the inequity in relation to forest use and contribution to the conservation process itself

The major thrust on regeneration, development and harvesting of sal trees has led to the neglect of other flora and fauna in this area. Recently, the villagers have decided to adopt systems of management such that contribute to the conservation of all elements of biodiversity and also contribute towards the adjoining wildlife sanctuary. The decision is too recent to assess its implications and efficacy.

  This case study was contributed by Deepak Pani in the year 2000, when he was working with the organization MASS (Mayurbhanj Swechhasevi Samukhya). He now works with Gram Swaraj. 

Deepak Pani
Secretary, Gram Swaraj,
Kamala Nehru Girls’ High School Road,
Ward No-16, Baripada,
Mayurbhanj, Orissa, 757001.
Email: [email protected]

This case study was part of the Directory on Community Conserved Areas (2009), published by Kalpavriksh. The directory can be downloaded here.

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